Works Cited

Blau, Francine D., Anne C. Gielen, and Klaus F. Zimmermann. Gender, Inequality, and Wages.Oxford, UK: Oxford UP, 2012. Print. 

The authors of this book argue that gender determines what wages a worker will receive. This is recent study that was completed from 2010-2012. This specific study targets the western world (America). This research was sponsored by the Labor of Economics research program which is responsible for producing multiple books, like Gender Convergence, that analyze the wage gap. This would contribute to our blog because it gives us evidence to state: Yes, gender does contribute to unfair wages and is still a present problem today.

Cobble, Dorothy S. Women and Unions: Forging a Partnership. Ithica, N.Y.: IRL, 1993. Print.

Cobble argues that from the late 20th century to the early 21st century women have not only paid less, but also have been treated worse than men. The main theme of this particular book is the stereotypes of women have carried over into the workplace. Mrs. Cobble will contribute to helping us answer our central question. Mrs. Cobble provides enough evidence to support the idea that gender is the trait that has the most weight in regards to the wage gap in comparison to age and race.

Detroit, Mich. Encyclopedia of Race and Racism. USA: Macmillan Reference, 2008. Print.

Detroit argues that it is currently race that contributes to the wage gap in American. Detroit provides historical evidence from the 60’s to show that race has always caused in equality of wages in America. Specifically, Detroit will contribute to the blog by supporting our idea that race alongside gender is the leading cause of today’s wage gap.

Garcia, Ruben J. Marginal Workers: How Legal Fault Lines Divide Workers and Leave Them Without   Protection. New York: New York UP, 2012. Print.

Garcia argues that all three factors (race, gender, and age) are all contributing to the wage gap. Garcia says that being a minority or an immigrant in almost every case results in being paid lower wages. Garcia’s piece contributes to our blog because it helps us give a clear example of what type of person (a female of a minority group) is it the lowest end of the wage gap.

Mishel, Lawrence R., Jared Bernstein, and Heidi Shierholz. The State of Working America: 2008-2009Ithaca, NY: ILR, 2009. Print.

Mishel argues that over the last 7 years race has been the deciding factor for wage in America. Mishel’s study started in 1988 and is still an ongoing process. Mishel looks at families as a whole and how families of color have a lower annual income than those who are white in America. Mishel contributes to the portion of our blog that examines how race is factored in when looking at the wage gap. Mishel also provides with graphical support for our blog.

O’Neill, June, and David M. O’Neill. The Declining Importance of Race and Gender in the Labor Market: The Role of Employment Discrimination Policies. Washington, D.C.: AEI, 2012. Print.

O’Neil argues that it is race and gender that generally create a wage gap. This book looks at the historical reasons that there are wage gap and the different acts that have been enacted through the years that are aimed to reduce the wage gap. O’Neil released this publication in 2012 equipping our blog with modern statistics. This information contributed to our blog by helping us decipher our graphs and giving us evidence for both race and gender.

Roediger, David R. The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class. London: Verso, 1991. Print.

In this book, Roediger argues that it is race that has the greatest impact on wage discrimination. Roediger argues that it is the psychological and ideological factors of Americans that will always allow those of a white race to receive the highest wages. This professor’s publication were released in the early 90’s and contributed to our blog by helping analyzing the information for the conclusion.

Russell, Cheryl. American Incomes: Demographics of Who Has Money. Ithaca, NY: New Strategist Publications, 2005. Print.

Russell presents an argument that race is factor with the most weight when talking about the wage gap. Russell explores how racial profiling carries into the work place and allows for minorities to receive lower wages. These demographics were collected in the early 21st century and then published in 2005. Russell contributes to the blog by giving insight of why there is a wage gap between races.


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